Inventory Management and Budgetary Control System
Inventory, as a current asset, differs from other current assets because only financial managers are not involved. Rather, all the functional areas finance, marketing, production, and purchasing, are involved. The views concerning the appropriate level of inventory would differ among the different functional areas. The Conflicting view points of the various functional areas regarding the appropriate inventory levels in order to fulfill the overall objective of maximizing the owner s wealth. Thus, inventory management, like the management of other current assets, should be related to the overall objective of the firm. It is basically concerned with inventory management techniques. Attention is given here to basic concepts relevant to the management and control of inventory. The aspects covered are: (i) determination of the type of control required, (ii) the basic economic order quantity, (iii) the recorder point, and (iv) safety stocks. As a matter of fact, the inventory management techniques are a part of production management. Thus it will help the financial managers in planning and budgeting inventory
Planning is the basic managerial function. It helps in determining the course of action to be followed for achieving organizational goals. It is the decision in advance what to do, and when to do, and who will do the particular task? Plan is made to achieve best results. Control in the process of checking whether the plans are being adhered to or not, keeping the record of process, comparing it with the plans and then taking corrective measure for future if there is any devotion.
Every business enterprise needs the use of control techniques for surviving in the highly competitive and managing economic world. There are various control devices in use .budget are the most important tool of profit planning and control. They also act as an instrument of coordination.
A budget is a detailed plan of operations for some specific future period. It is an estimated prepared in advance of the future period to which it applies. It acts as a business parameter. It is a complete programme of activities of the business for the period covered.
Objectives behind this Study
Budget and Budgetary control system is a very vast subject. But at the same time it is basic need of every company to make the budget. So it requires the overall knowledge and skill for making budget and without planning nobody can achieve organizational goals. This topic is very essential to every company and it's have special importance in the current competitive world.
Taking into consideration the vast importance of Budget and Budgetary control. The objective behind this study work is as follows:
To study in detail the budget procedure of Mahindra & Mahindra Co. Ltd. Nagpur.
To list of various types of budgets generally Mahindra & Mahindra Co. Ltd. Nagpur prepares.
To evaluate variance analysis of Mahindra & Mahindra Co. Ltd. for taking suitable action by comparing actual results with budgets so that the causes are not repeated and remedial action should be taken in future.
a. Any modern business can t not function without planning which is related to production, sales, stocks, requirement of labour, etc. The advantage of planning is that we can anticipate the problems before hand. Planning through budgetary control is necessary at all levels of management in which there is the process of thinking which enables to provide new idea to the management.
b. A detailed budgetary control system is one where the plans are written down and these plans are circulated to all the levels management this can be achieve only through proper communication.
c. It encourages research and development as budgetary control schedules are usually based on past experience. From the study variances analysis is possible so that corrective action taken wherever necessary.
Objectives of Budgetary Control
Budgetary control is essential for policy planning and control. It also acts as an instrument of co-ordination. The main objectives of budgetary control are as follows.
To ensure the planning for future by setting up various budgets. The requirement and expected performance of the enterprise are anticipated.
To co-ordinate the activities of different departments.
To operate the cost centers and department with the efficiency and expected.
Elimination of waste and increasing profitability.
To anticipate capital expenditures for future.
To centralize the cost system
Correction of deviation from establish standard.
Fixation of responsibility of various individuals in the organization.
Comparison of Initial Public Offer in Infrastructure Sector
Initial Public Offer (IPO) refers to the offering of stock in a company to the public through a public market. When a company sells stock to the public for the first time it is called an initial public offer. Stock is sold in the primary market at an offer price determined by the IPO team. Following the financing, the shares are traded in the secondary market. Selling stock in the primary market is assisted with investment bankers or underwriters that help promote the potential offering. Investors purchasing stock in IPOs generally must be prepared to accept very large risks for the possibility of large gains.
An Initial Public Offer (IPO) is the selling of securities to the public in the primary market. It is the largest source of funds with long or indefinite maturity for the company. A corporate may raise capital in the primary market by way of an initial public offer, rights issue or private placement.
For the majority of firms going public, they need additional capital to execute long-range business models, increase brand name and utilize funds for possible acquisitions. This is typical of today’s Internet and technology offerings. By converting to corporate status, a company can always dip back into the market and offer additional shares through a secondary offering.
The objective is to study the IPOs of the companies in infrastructure sector such as DLF Limited, Housing Development & Infrastructure Limited and Omaxe Limited on the basis of issue, allotment and performance.
The study the concept of Initial Public Offer (IPO).
To study the procedure for IPOs.
To study the IPOs of in infrastructure sector the DLF Limited, Housing Development and Infrastructure Limited and Omaxe Limited on the basis of issue, allotment and performance.
Selection of the topic – The topic Comparison of Initial Public Offers in infrastructure sector is selected as the infrastructure sector is in boom and the stock market is performing well. These companies were selected as they came up with an IPO during the tenure of the summer project.
Data Source – The source of data is secondary. The secondary data used herein is obtained from websites.
Preparatory Work Involved by the Company for an IPO
A company that is thinking about going public should start preparing detailed financial results on a regular basis, and developing a business plan if they do not already have one, as much as two years in advance of the desired IPO. Soon thereafter, it needs to put its IPO team together, consisting of the lead investment bank, an accountant, and a law firm. The IPO process officially begins with what is typically called an "all-hands" meeting. At this meeting, which usually takes place six to eight weeks before a company officially registers with the Securities and Exchange Commission, all the members of the IPO team plan a timetable for going public and assign certain duties to each member.
The most important and time-consuming task facing the IPO team is the development of the prospectus, a business document that basically serves as a brochure for the company. The prospectus includes all financial data for a company for the past five years, information on the management team, and a description of a company's target market, competitors, and growth strategy.
The next step in the IPO process is known as the road show. The road show usually lasts a week or two, with company management meeting with prospective investors to present their business plan. Once the road show ends and the final prospectus is printed and distributed to investors, company management meets with their investment bank to choose the final offering price and size. Investment banks try to suggest an appropriate price based on expected demand for the deal and other market conditions. The pricing of 15 an IPO is a balancing act. Investment firms have two sets of clients - the company going public, which wants to raise as much money as possible, and the investors buying the shares, who expect to see some immediate appreciation in their investment. If interest in an IPO is weak, the number of shares in the offering or their price may be cut from the expected ranges. If it is strong, the offering price or size can also be raised from initial expectations. A company can also postpone an offering because of insufficient demand.
Once the offering price has been agreed on, and at least two days after potential investors receive the final prospectus, an IPO is declared effective. This is usually done after a market closes, with trading in the new stock starting the next day as the lead underwriter works to confirm its buy orders. The lead underwriter is primarily responsible for ensuring smooth trading in a company's stock during those first few crucial days. This could mean supporting the price of a newly issued stock by buying shares in the market, or by selling them short
Difference between Book Building Issue and Fixed Price Issue
In Book Building securities are offered at prices above or equal to the floor prices, whereas securities are offered at a fixed price in case of a public issue.
In case of Book Building, the demand can be known everyday as the book is built. But in case of the public issue the demand is known at the close of the issue.
Price at which securities will be allotted is not known in case of offer of shares through book building while in case of offer of shares through normal public issue, price is known in advance to investor.
The promotion of environmentally safe/ beneficial products, green marketing began in Europe in the early 1980's when specific products were identified as being harmful to the earth's atmosphere. As the result new "green" products were introduced that were less damaging to the environment. The concept caught on in the United States and has been gaining steadily ever since.
Green Marketing is also known as environmental marketing or sustainable marketing. Divergent aspect of green marketing includes ecologically safer products, recyclable and biodegradable packaging, energy efficient operations and better pollution controls. Advances produced from green marketing include packaging made from recycle paper, phosphate-free detergents, refillable containers for cleaning products and bottle using less plastic.
As today's consumer become more and more conscious of natural products, businesses are beginning to modify their own thoughts and behavior in an attempt to address the concerns of consumers. Green marketing is becoming more important to businesses because of consumers' genuine concerns about our limited resources on the earth. By implementing green marketing measures in order to save the earth's resources in productions, packaging and operations, businesses are showing consumers that they too share the same concern about environment, boosting their credibility. Government has also taken certain initiatives by making regulations relating to green marketing in order to protect the environment.
Green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising. It is the process of selling products and services based on their environmental benefits. Such a product or service may be environmentally friendly in itself or produced and/or packaged in an environmentally friendly way .
Green marketing involves developing and promoting products and services that satisfy customers want and need for Quality, Performance, Affordable Pricing and Convenience without having a detrimental impact on the environment. The Obvious assumption of green marketing is that potential consumers will view a product or service's "greenness" as a benefit and base their buying decision accordingly.
Importance Of Green Marketing
Since early 1990's,a major concern on ecological impact of industrial house on environment has been surfaced on marketplace. Not only the relations between human, organization and natural environment has been redefined, but the implication thereof are being interpreted, because of these, new perception are being formed or re-evaluated on issues like environmentally product, recycle ability , waste reduction, the cost associated with pollution and price value relationship of environmentalism. Pressure from various stakeholders, govt. environmentalists, NGO's consumer is placed on businesses, which in turn keep them under constant and relentless watch in their daily operations. A direct result can be seen in developing as well as in developed countries where government become more strict in imposing regulations to protect environment at the same time, the consumers of these countries are being more and more out spoken regarding their needs for environmentally friendly products, even though question remain on their willingness to pay higher premium for these products.
So in this era where consumer determine the fate of a company, green marketing imparts a proactive strategies to these companies to cater the market by imparting natural friendly product/ services which otherwise reduce or minimize detrimental impact on environment.
A green marketing approach in productive area promotes the integration of environmental issues on all corporate activities; from strategy formulation, planning re-engineering in production process and dealing with consumers. So to remain competitive within the challenge thrown by environment protectionists, the companies will have to find out the answer through their marketing strategies, product or services redesign, customer handling.
in this endeavour the companies go for new technologies for handling waste, sewage and air pollution; it can go for product standardization to ensure environmentally safe product; by providing truly natural product. In this regard companies should be concerned with what happens to a product during and after its useful life. Companies may manifest these concerns through experimentation with ways to reassess the product life stages.
Moreover, man has limited resources on the earth, with which she/he must attempt to provide for the worlds' unlimited wants. There is extensive debate as to whether the earth is a resource at man's disposal.. In market societies where there is "freedom of choice", it has generally been accepted that individuals and organizations have the right to attempt to have their wants satisfied. As firms face limited natural resources, they must develop new or alternative ways of satisfying these unlimited wants. Ultimately green marketing looks at how marketing activities utilize these limited resources, while satisfying consumers wants, both of individuals and industry, as well as achieving the selling organization's objectives.
Adoption Of Green Marketing
There are basically five reasons for which a marketer should go for the adoption of green marketing. They are -
Opportunities or competitive advantage
Corporate social responsibilities (CSR)
Cost or profit issues
G eneralise with care. Consumer behaviour will not necessarily be consistent across different product types, and particular market segment may respond to certain issues on green agenda but not others.
R emember the validity of piece of market research is not related to degree to which it support your preferred option.
E xplore the context from which the market research data comes. Be clear on the nature of sample used , the question asked the way in which the responses were recorded and time and place from where the responses come.
E nsure that where the market research is crossing international boundaries, that the terminology and interpretations remain consistent.
N eurality is important. Ensure that when you pose questions to consumers that they can made any responses without being made guilty or uncomfortable and ensure that your own preconceptions about green agenda are not encoded with in the questions.
Affect of Branding on Consumer Purchase Decision
Brand recognition and other reactions are created by the use of the product or service and through the influence of advertising, design, and media commentary. A brand is a symbolic embodiment of all the information connected to the product and serves to create associations and expectations around it. A brand often includes a logo, fonts, color schemes, symbols, and sound, which may be developed to represent implicit values, ideas, and even personality. Brand equity measures the total value of the brand to the brand owner, and reflects the extent of brand franchise. The term brand name is often used interchangeably with "brand", although it is more correctly used to specifically denote written or spoken linguistic elements of a brand. In this context a "brand name" constitutes a type of trademark, if the brand name exclusively identifies the brand owner as the commercial source of products or services. A brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in relation to a brand name through trademark registration.
Marketers engaged in branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the brand experience, creating the impression that a brand associated with a product or service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique. A brand image may be developed by attributing a "personality" to or associating an "image" with a product or service, whereby the personality or image is "branded" into the consciousness of consumers. A brand is therefore one of the most valuable elements in an advertising theme. The art of creating and maintaining a brand is called brand management. A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand recognition. When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical mass of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand franchise. One goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without the name of the company present. For example, Disney has been successful at branding with their particular script font (originally created for Walt Disney's "signature" logo) which it used in the logo for go.com. "DNA" refers to the unique attributes, essence, purpose, or profile of a brand and, therefore, a company. The term is borrowed from the biological DNA, the molecular "blueprint" or genetic profile of an organism which determines its unique characteristics
The main objective of research is to analysis how the brand effects the customer purchasing decision in FMCG goods and durable goods
The sub objective of research is to understand the choice of the customer is branded or non-branded goods
Branding can be viewed as a tool to position a product or a service with a consistent image of quality and value for money to ensure the development of a recurring preference by the customer. It is common knowledge that the consumer's choice is influenced by many surrogates of which the simplest one is a brand name. Although there may be equally satisfying products, the consumer when satisfied with some brand does not want to spend additional effort to evaluate the other alternative choices. Once he or she has liked a particular brand, he or she tends to stay with it, unless there is a steep rise in the price or a discernible better quality product comes to his/her knowledge, which prompts the consumer to switch the brand.
Companies spend a lot of money and time on the branding and thus it needs a careful evaluation on the effect of branding on consumer buying behavior.
Brand energy is a concept that links together the ideas that the brand is experiential; that it is not just about the experiences of customers/potential customers but all stakeholders; and that businesses are essentially more about creating value through creating meaningful experiences than generating profit. Economic value comes from businesses' transactions between people whether they be customers, employees, suppliers or other stakeholders. For such value to be created people first have to have positive associations with the business and/or its products and services and be energized to behave positively towards them - hence brand energy. It has been defined as "The energy that flows throughout the system that links businesses and all their stakeholders and which is manifested in the way these stakeholders think, feel and behave towards the business and its products or services." Attitude branding is the choice to represent a feeling, which is not necessarily connected with the product or consumption of the product at all. Marketing labeled as attitude branding includes that of Nike, Starbucks, The Body Shop, Safeway, and Apple Inc.
"A great brand raises the bar -- it adds a greater sense of purpose to the experience, whether it's the challenge to do your best in sports and fitness, or the affirmation that the cup of coffee you're drinking really matters." - Howard Schultz (CEO, Starbucks Corp.)
The act of associating a product or service with a brand has become part of pop culture. Most products have some kind of brand identity, from common table salt to designer clothes. In non-commercial contexts, the marketing of entities which supply ideas or promises rather than product and services (e.g. political parties or religious organizations) may also be known as "branding".